A Comparative Study of Two Methods for Age Determination Using Nubian Dental Sample

Aitken, Oxford University Edward V. Sayre, Smithsonian Institution and R. Taylor and Martin J. Aitken A Continuation Order Plan is available for this series. A continuation order will bring delivery of each new volume immediately upon publication. Volumes are billed only upon actual shipment. For further information please contact the publisher. Chronometric Dating in Archaeology Edited by R. Advances In archaeological and museum science ; v. Royal Ervln ,

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Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article. Bada JL, Protsch R.

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Show all Filter by year Benjamin A. The Organic Crystalline Materials of Vision: Optically functional isoxanthopterin crystals in the mirrored eyes of decapod crustaceans. Mineral Deposits in Ficus Leaves: Morphologies and Locations in Relation to Function. Serrangeli; Antonino Vazzana; Piero A.

Chronometric Dating in Archaeology ||

James Estimation of Age from Fetal Remains. Huxley Revisiting McKern and Stewart Nawrocki Histological Age Estimation in Subadults. Teeth are usually available to the anthropologist for the construction of a biological profile because they are durable and preserve very well, even when other aspects of the skeleton have long since decomposed. Their ubiquity in archeological and forensic contexts has led to a plethora of literature regarding dental aging techniques.

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The correlation between D-aspartic acid in dentin and age in a number of teeth from the same individual found levels of the D-form of the amino acid to be highest in the first molar, followed in turn by relatively lower levels in the second molar, second premolar, first .

Filter by year Select year Benjamin A. The Organic Crystalline Materials of Vision: Many eyes have reflective elements that consist of multilayers of nanometer-sized crystalline plates, composed of organic molecules. The crystal multilayer assemblies owe their enhanced reflectivity to the high refractive indices of the crystals in preferred crystallographic directions. The high refractive indices are due to the molecular arrangements in their crystal structures. Herein, data regarding these difficult-to-characterize crystals are reviewed.

This is followed by a discussion on the function of these crystalline assemblies, especially in visual systems whose anatomy has been well characterized under close to in vivo conditions. Three test cases are presented, and then the relations between the reflecting crystalline components and their functions, including the relations between molecular structure, crystal structure, and reflecting properties are discussed. Some of the underlying mechanisms are also discussed, and finally open questions in the field are identified.

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IntroductionDetermination of the age of bloodstains represents a demand-ing and crucial task in forensic practice. Pioneer approachesintroduced decades ago differ in applied methodology, instru-ments and interpretation of the ndings. Some of these methodswere based on the observation of color changes in blood spots [1]or the examination of enzyme activity [24]. Other researchersattempted to correlate the elapsed time with the solubility of thebloodstain [5] or chloride transfer [6].

However, these techniquesdid not result in conclusive and accurate determination of the ageof bloodstains due to methodological limitations and impreciseassessments.

Structure and mechanical properties of the soft zone separating bulk dentin and enamel in crowns of human teeth: Insight into tooth function. A novel aspartic acid-rich protein family from the prismatic shell matrix of the bivalve Atrina rigida. AMINO-ACID RACEMIZATION OF FOSSIL BONE. Journal of Archaeological Science. Sept, 18 (5.

AAR dating shows satisfactory performance on living humans and Pleistocene mammal remains. Abstract Given the interest in dating sediments from numerous caves, lakes and fluvial terraces containing fossils and lithic components in Europe, here we provide a complete revision of the amino acid racemization AAR aspartic acid in dentine dating method in vertebrates. To examine the reliability of this method, which is based on a straightforward sample preparation previous 3.

We examined human dentine collagen from living donors and remains from historical 16th and 19th centuries and prehistorical Neolithic periods. On the assumption that genus does not affect collagen racemization rates, we also studied Neanderthal material and material from carnivores cave bear and several other mammals. To validate our age calculation algorithm, we used a wide series of radiometric datings ESR and 14C , along with thermoluminescence and AAR dating on invertebrate ostracode samples.

Our results demonstrate that AAR shows satisfactory correlation between age and the extent of aspartic acid racemization for material from modern humans and for ancient Pleistocene mammal remains cave bears, horses and Neanderthals and highlight a strong correlation between ages derived from dentine collagen aspartic acid and other dating methods. We assume that taphonomic processes time and geochemistry greatly contribute to the denaturation of the collagen triple helix and higher order structures, thereby allowing the racemization of peptide-bound aspartic acid.

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Temperature and humidity histories of microenvironments are being produced at ever increasing rates as technologies advance and technologists accumulate data. These are important for amino acid dating because racemization occurs much faster in warm, wet conditions compared to cold, dry conditions. Temperate to cold region studies are much more common than tropical studies, and the steady cold of the ocean floor or the dry interior of bones and shells have contributed most to the accumulation of racemization dating data.

Generally, they are not assumed to have a great impact in the natural environment, though tephrochronological data may shed new light on this variable. The enclosing matrix is probably the most difficult variable in amino acid dating.

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The main source of the problem is the nature of human aging. This feature is characterized by an accumulation of metabolic disorders that show great variation in the level and the degree of change with increasing age both within and between populations. Moreover, individual aging is determined by the interplay of complex set of genetic, culture and environmental factors. Variation in the biological aging process has profound effects on age-at- death assessment. The relationship between chronological age and skeletal age indicators is neither constant nor linear.

The assumption that the underlying biological basis of the age-indicator relationship is constant across different populations is erroneous. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account that age changes are not uniform across populations. It has been demonstrated that when applied an aging method to independent populations of known age at death, it proves less reliable than the results obtained when applying the method to samples from the population used to formulate the methods.

Moreover most adult skeletal aging methodologies involve placing a skeletal element into a phase category. This type of phase-oriented age estimation, leads to several problems namely 1 observer subjectivity, 2 large age ranges and open-ended intervals , 3 stages that overlap one another, 4 aging bias, 5 age mimicry, 6 preservation problems that lead to missing data, and 7 improper theoretical and statistical methodology used to derive estimate age-at-death.

Aspartic acid racemization in tooth enamel from living humans.

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Age Estimation of the Human Skeleton


Original article Racemization of aspartic acid in root dentin as a tool for age estimation in a Kuwaiti population Mohamed Amin Elfawal1, Sahib Issa Alqattan2 and Noha Ayman Ghallab3 Abstract.